Talessman’s Atlas of World History
Timeline of World History
BC or Before Common Era Dates
c. 520 BC - Persian armies under Darius I conquer much of Central Asia (inc. Ferghana, Sogdiana, and Chorasmia).
Central Asia - Alexander the Great conquers Bactria, Margiana, Sogdiana, and Ferghana in a multi-year campaign.
Afghanistan - The Seleucids and Mauryans sign a treaty, which gives control over Arachosia & Gedrosia (most of modern Afghanistan & Pakistan) to the Mauryans.
c. 248 BC
Central Asia - The Satraps of Bactria & Parthia break away from the Seleucid Empire and form their own kingdoms.
c. 244 BC
Parthia - A Saka tribe called the Parni invade Parthia, killing Andragoras. The Parni adopt the name of their new land and crown their leader as King Arsaces I.
c. 230 BC
Bactria - King Diodotus II is overthrown by Euthydemus I, beginning the "Euthydemid dynasty".
Parthia - Seleucid king Antiochus III forces King Arsaces to recognize Seleucid authority.
Bactria - Seleucid king Antiochus III defeats King Euthydemus but is unable to take the capital city (Bactra). Peace is concluded when Euthydemus accepts Seleucid authority.
Mongolia - Xiongnu tribes are united by Maotun to form the Xiongnu Khanate.
India - The Mauryan dynasty is overthrown by the Sunga dynasty when a minister named Pushyamitra Sunga assassinates the last Mauryan emperor.
Afghanistan - Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius I invades Sunga lands in retaliation for the overthrow of the Mauryans. Demetrius seizes Arachosia, Gedrosia, Sindh, and the Punjab region.
Mongolia - The Xiongnu destroy the Tocharian (Yuezhi) federation in Kansu, and some Tochari flee westward towards Wusun and Dzungaria.
Dzungaria - Northern Saka (Sai Wang) tribes are conquered by the Tochari. Some of the Sakas escape and flee south to settle in Ki-pin (near Kashmir).
Iran - Mithradates I becomes King of Parthia after the death of Phraates I.
Bactria - Civil war splits Greco-Bactria when King Antimachus is overthrown by a general named Eucratides. The Euthydemids retreat to India and become known as the "Indo-Greeks".
Iran - Parthian forces seize Merv & Herat from the Eucratidians during the Greco-Bactrian civil war.
Afghanistan - Menander becomes king of the (Euthydemid) Indo-Greeks.
Dzungaria - The Tochari are defeated by the Wusun (Issedones) and forced to flee to the southeast through Ferghana (Dayuan).
Transoxiana - The Tochari defeat the Western Saka tribes (probably descents of the Massagetae). The Western Sakas flee to the south and west, invading Parthia and Greco-Bactria.
Bactria - Western Sakas defeat King Eucratides II of Greco-Bactria and destroy the city of Alexandria-on-the-Oxus (modern Ai-Khanoum).
Bactria - The Tochari defeat King Heliocles I and destroy the last Greek kingdom in Bactria. The Eucratidians flee and set up a new kingdom in Kabul.
Iran - Saka mercenaries rebel & destroy a Parthian army, killing King Phraates II. His uncle is crowned as Artabanus II.
Central Asia - Chinese envoy Zhang Qian travels to Tochari lands in Bactria, leaving written records of the lands immediately after the Tochari conquest.
Iran - Parthian king Artabanus II is killed fighting a new wave of Saka tribes. He is succeeded by Mithradates II.
Central Asia - A Chinese army under Ban Chao reaches the Black Sea, marking the westernmost expansion of Han authority.
Afghanistan - Parthian forces defeat the Eucratidians and seize control over Arachosia (renamed Sakastan). A Partho-Sakan clan called Suren becomes prominent in the region.
Mongolia - Dingling and Wuhuan tribes rebel against the Xiongnu.
Afghanistan - Indo-Parthian forces seize Gandhara from the Indo-Greeks.
India - Azes I becomes King of the Saka.
Mongolia - Xiongnu Empire breaks into Eastern & Western Khanates.
Dzungaria - Northern Xiongu Khan Zizhou is killed by Han armies, ending the Western Xiongnu Khanate.
Mongolia - The Eastern Xiongnu rebuild their empire in Mongolia.
AD or Common Era Dates
022 - The
192 - A Malay people known as the Chams (Champa?) seize Quangnam from the Chinese Han Dynasty, founding the Cham Kingdom of Lam Ap (Lin Yi).
208 - The
220 - In
221 - Liu Bei declares himself Emperor of the Shu (or Shu Han) Dynasty in
223 - Emperor Liu Bei of Shu Han dies and is succeeded by his son Liu Shan.
226 - Beginning of the Sassanid Persian Empire, as Ardashir I of
229 - War breaks out between
240 - Sassanid Emperor Ardashir I dies and is succeeded by Shapur I (240 to 271 ad).
ࠠ࠼/span>- Cao Rui becomes Emperor
241 - War breaks out between
244 - Roman Emperor Gordian defeats Shapur but is murdered before he can continue.࠼/span>Peace is concluded by his successor, Emperor Philip 㴨e Arab䮍
253 - Valerian and his son Gallienus become Roman Emperors.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Persian armies under
Shapur I capture
257 - Emperor Valerian retakes
ࠠ࠼/span>- Germanic tribes invade
Western Roman lands; the Franks invade
260 - Emperor Valerian is defeated and captured by the Persians, dying as
a slave of the Persian Emperor (265?). The Persian victory is short-lived; King
ࠠ࠼/span>- Posthumus is proclaimed
267 - Germanic warbands led by the Ostrogoths sack the city of
ࠠ࠼/span>- Odaenathus is assassinated, and his widow Zenobia becomes Queen of Palmyra.
268 - Emperor Gallienus defeats the Ostrogoths, but is later assassinated.࠼/span>Claudius II becomes Emperor of Rome.
269 - Roman armies under Emperor Claudius II destroy the eastern
contingent of the Ostrogothic warbands at the Battle of Naissus (in modern
ࠠ࠼/span>- Posthumus is killed and
Victorinus is proclaimed Emperor in
ࠠ࠼/span>- Palmyrene forces take
270 - Emperor Claudius II dies of plague and Aurelian becomes Emperor of Rome.
ࠠ - The Han Chinese repel an invasion of Chams.
271 栅mperor Victorinus is murdered; his soldiers proclaim Tetricus I as Emperor.
272 - Emperor Aurelian defeats Zenobia at
274 - Emperor Aurelian defeats Tetricus in
275 - Emperor Aurelian is murdered and Tacitus is declared Emperor.
276 - Emperor Tacitus dies and Probus becomes Emperor.
277 - The Romans defeat the Burgundians, Longiones, Alamanni, and Franks.
282 - Carus is declared Emperor; Probus is murdered by his own troops.
283 - Emperor Carus dies during an invasion of
284 - Emperor Numerian dies and is succeeded by Diocletian.࠼/span>
285 - Emperor Diocletian appoints Maximian as co-Emperor in the West.
࠼/span>* Dongbuyeo frees itself from
࠼/span>* Xianbei-Murong tribes defeat
286 - Carausius revolts in
293 - Diocletian appoints Constantius and Galerius as Caesars.
ࠠ࠼/span>- The rebel Carausius is murdered by Allectus, who proclaims himself Emperor.
296 - Alectus is defeated and slain.
299 - Emperor Galerius defeats the Sarmatians and
303 - Emperor Diocletian orders the persecution of Christians.
305 - Emperors Diocletian and Maximian abdicate; Constantius I and Galerius become Emperors.
306 - Constantius I dies at
312 - Emperor Constantine I defeats Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge.
313 - Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan, proclaiming all religions to be legal.
324 - Emperor Constantine defeats Licinius, who then abdicates, which
325 - The Ecumenical Council of
330 - The capital of the
337 - Emperor Constantine I dies and his sons become Emperors (Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans).
338 - Emperor Constantius II defeats the Alamanni.
ࠠ࠼/span>- War breaks out between
340 - Constantine II invades
341 - Emperors Constans and Constantius II issue a ban against pagan sacrifice.
347 - The heretical Donatists revolt in
348 - Emperor Constantius II defeats the Persians at the Battle of Singara.
350 - Magnentius proclaims himself Emperor of the West and Constans is captured and killed.
353 - Emperor Constantius defeats Magnentius at the Battle of Mons Seleucia; Magnentius then commits suicide.
355 - Julian is appointed Caesar in
357 - Julian defeats the Franks at
360 - Julian's troops mutiny against Emperor Constantius and proclaimed Julian Emperor.
361 - Emperor Constantius II dies and names Julian as his successor.
363 - Emperor Julian defeats the Persians and invades their Empire, but is killed before he reaches their capital.͊His general is proclaimed by the troops as Emperor Jovian.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Emperor Jovian negotiates
a peace treaty with
364 - Emperor Valentinian appoints his brother Valens as Emperor of the East.
376 - Visigoth refugees fleeing from the Huns are allowed to settle in Roman Moesia.
378 - Emperor Valens is defeated and killed by Visigoth refugees in the Battle of Adrianople.
393 栅mperor Theodosius II forbids the Olympic games, considering them to be pagan.
395 - Emperor Theodosius II dies, dividing the Empire between his sons Honorius and Arcadius (in the West and East, respectively).
406 - A massive horde of Germanic tribes cross the
408 - Emperor Honorius has general Stilcho assassinated, and orders the massacre of the families of 30'000 Germanic Federates (soldiers).
409 - The Burgundians occupy Roman Transalpine Gaul and establish a Kingdom there.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Vandals, Suevians, and Alans establish kingdoms in Roman Iberia.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Roman forces evacuate
418 - The Visigoths establish a kingdom in
ࠠ࠼/span>- The Iberian Alans are defeated by the Visigoths and the Alan King, Attaces, is killed.࠼/span>The remaining Iberian Alans join the Asding Vandals.
425 - Vortimer usurps Roman authority in Briton becomes the leader (possible High-King) of the Britons.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Emperor Honorius dies and
is succeeded by Emperor Valentinian
427 - Persian forces win a significant victory over invading
Hephthalite forces and drive them from
429 - The Vandals and Alans flee
431 - The Vandals capture the city of
437 - The
ࠠ࠼/span>- Ambrosius Aurelianus arrives in Briton and becomes the leader of the pro-Roman faction.࠼/span>At the Battle of Wallop, Aurelianus defeats VortigernⳠsubordinate, Vitalinus, and is given control over 㡬l the Kingdoms of the Western side of Briton䮍
439 - The Vandals capture
450 - Emperor Theodosius II dies and is succeeded by Marcian as Western Emperor.
ࠠ࠼/span>- A Saxon warlord named
Hengst arrives with 3 keels (ships) of Saxon warriors and establishes the first
permanent Germanic settlement of Briton in
ࠠ࠼/span>- Thorismund becomes King of the Visigoths.
453 - Attila the Hun dies and his empire is divided by his sons.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Theodoric II becomes King of the Visigoths.
454 - Hephthalite forces defeat the Persians.
ࠠ࠼/span>- A Hephthalite (Huna)
456 - The Visigoths defeat the Suevi at the Battle of Orbigo and sack
the Suevi capital of
457 - Majorian becomes Emperor of the West.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Persian Shah Firuz is overthrown and flees to the Hephthalites.
459 栉n Briton, Vortigern is defeated and killed by Ambrosius Aurelianus at the Battle of Ganarew.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Persian Shah Firuz regains his throne with help from the Hephthalites.
461 - Emperor Majorian is deposed by Ricimer, who then appoints Libius Severus as Emperor.
ࠠ࠼/span>- The Sabir tribe is
defeated by the Caucasian Avars. They in turn attack the Saragur and Utrigur
Hun tribes living around the
467 - Anthemius becomes Western Emperor with the support of the Eastern Emperor, Leo I.
468 - A massive Roman attempt to regain
469 - Hunnic power is destroyed by a coalition of Germanic tribes, led by the Gepids.
472 - Emperor Anthemius is killed by Ricimer, who then makes Olybrius the Western Emperor.࠼/span>Both Anthemius and Ricimer soon die of natural causes.
ࠠ࠼/span>- The Burgundian King
Gundobad becomes magister militum in
473 - Gundobad proclaims Glycerius as the new Western Emperor.
474 - Emperor Glycerius is deposed by Julius Nepos after Gundobad
475 - Emperor Julius Nepos is defeated by his former magister militum,
Orestes, who installs his son Romulus Augustulus as Emperor.ࠠJulius Nepos flees to
ࠠ - The Visigoths declare
their full independence from the
476 - Orestes is defeated and executed by Odoacar, leader of the
Germanic federates, and Emperor Romulus Augustulus is deposed. Odoacar refuses
to acknowledge the authority of Emperor Julius Nepos, and instead accepts the
title of Patrician from the Eastern Emperor. Most scholars considered this to
be the end of the
477 - King Geiseric of the Vandals dies and is succeeded by his son Huneric.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Odoacar defeats the
Vandals and conquers
480 - Julius Nepos is assassinated by agents of Odoacar, and
481 - Clovis I becomes King of the Ripuarian Franks.
ࠠ࠼/span>- The Korean kingdoms of
Baekje, Silla, and Daegaya form an alliance against the
484 - Vandal King Huneric dies and is succeeded by his cousin Gunthamund.
486 - King Clovis of the Franks defeats Duke Syagrius near
ࠠ࠼/span>- Persian Shah Kubad is overthrown and takes refuge with the Hephthalites.
487 - Odoacar defeats the Rugians in
488 - Odoacar suffers his first defeat at the hands of Theodoric and the Ostrogoths.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Persian Emperor Balash dies and is succeeded by Emperor Kavadh I.
491 - King Clovis defeats the Thuringians and subjugates their Kingdom.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Roman Emperor Zeno I dies and is succeeded by Anastasius I.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Saxon King Aelle conquers
the fortified town of
492 - Pope Felix
493 - Theodoric and Odoacar sign a peace treaty, after which Theodoric
murders Odoacar and becomes master of
494 - Emperor Xiaowen moves the Northern Wei capital from
࠼/span>* The Korean
495 - In
496 - King Clovis defeats the Alamanni near
ࠠ࠼/span>- The Britons, led by Arthur, defeat the Saxons at the Battle of Mount Badon.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Vandal King Gunthamund dies and is succeeded by Thrasamund.
499 - Persian Emperor Kavadh I restores his throne after deposing his brother, Djamasp.
507 - King Clovis defeats and kills the Visigoth King Alaric II in the
Battle of Vouille, then drives Visigoths from
511 - King Clovis dies and divides the Frankish Empire among his 4
sons, resulting in the Kingdoms of Reims,
512 - A
ࠠ࠼/span>- The island nation of
Usan-guk is conquered forces of the Silla Dynasty of
515 - The Sabirs raid Roman and Persian lands in the Caucasus Mts.
516 - Burgundian King Gundobad dies and is succeeded by his son Sigismund.
523 - Vandal King Thrasamund dies and is succeeded by his son Hilderic.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Frankish King Chlodomer
524 - Frankish King Childebert I of
525 - Ethiopian forces from
526 - Ostrogoth King Theodoric the Great dies and is succeeded by his grandson Athalaric.
527 栅mperor Justin I dies and is succeeded by his nephew, Emperor Justinian II.
528 - A coalition of Hindu Kingdoms is able to defeat the Hephthalites
530 - Vandal King Hilderic is overthrown and later murdered by his cousin, Gelimer.
ࠠ࠼/span>- The Saxons of Wessex, led by King Cerdic, conquer the Isle of Wright from the Britons.
531 - The Franks under King Childebert of
532 - King Childebert I of the Franks attacks the
533 - Roman armies under general Belisarius defeat the Vandals and
retake much of
534 - The Vandal King Gelimer is defeated and captured by the Romans,
ࠠ - The
535 - Severe climate changes are reported, possibly due to a volcanic eruption.࠼/span>The weather becomes extraordinarily cold, and it is reported that the Sun became dimmer.࠼/span>These conditions lead to a severe plague that decimates the worldⳠpopulation.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Roman armies under
Belisarius invade the
ࠠ࠼/span>- The Ostrogoths cede
536 - Roman armies recapture
537 - Frankish Kings Childebert of Paris and Clotaire of Soissons work
together to complete the annexation of
540 - Belisarius captures the Ostrogoth capital of
ࠠ࠼/span>- Persian forces under
Emperor Khusru I invade Roman Syria and sack
ࠠ ༯span>- In
ࠠ࠼/span>- Death of Ostrogoth King Witiges.࠼/span>He is succeeded by Ildibad.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Mythical death of King
Arthur and his son Mordred in
541 - The Ostrogoths elect a new King, Totila, who then leads a strong
counter-attack against Roman forces in
ࠠ࠼/span>- The Uyghurs come under the control of the Hephthalites.
542 - Ostrogoth forces under King Totila reconquer
ࠠ࠼/span>- Frankish King Childebert
544 - Roman general Belisarius is sent back to
ࠠ࠼/span>- Persian forces unsuccessfully attack the Roman fortress of Daraa.
545 - Ostrogoth forces besiege the city of
546 - Ostrogoth forces capture the city of
ࠠ࠼/span>- The Romans and
ࠠ࠼/span>- Lombard King Waltari dies and is succeeded by Audoin.
ࠠ࠼/span>- The G櫴첫 Khaganate begins its rise under Bumin Khan by defeating the Uygur and Tiele tribes, who were preparing to revolt against the Juan-Juan Khaganate.
547 - In
ࠠ࠼/span>- King Theodebert I of
548 - Belisarius is replaced by Narses as head of the Roman army in
ࠠ࠼/span>- Death of King Theudis; he is succeeded by King Theudigisel.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Death of Roman Empress Theodora.
549 - Ostrogoth forces under King Totila recapture
ࠠ࠼/span>- Death of Visigoth King Theudigisel.࠼/span>He is succeeded by King Agila.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Death of Emperor Wu of
the Liang Dynasty in
550 - The Eastern Wei Dynasty of China ends and is replaced by the Northern Qi Dynasty.
552 - G櫴첫 Khagan Bumin defeats the last Juan-Juan Khagan (Yujiulu Anagui).࠼/span>
ࠠ࠼/span>- Ostrogoth King Totila is
defeated and killed by Roman forces in
ࠠ࠼/span>- The Sabirs ally with the Romans and attack Persian lands in the Caucasus Mts.
554 - Roman armies invade
557 - The Hephthalite Khaganate in
558 - The
Frankish King Childebert I of
561 - The last Ostrogoth warlord, Wodin, is defeated by Roman forces.
ࠠ࠼/span>- King Lothair of the Franks dies and divides his Kingdom between his four sons.
562 - An Avar invasion of
565 - A Hephthalite Khanate is re-established in
ࠠ࠼/span>- Roman Emperor Justinian I
567 - The
568 - The
ࠠ࠼/span>- The Avar order their Kutrigur
vassals to raid Roman Dalmatia, which effectively cuts the overland route from
569 - The
570 - Birth of Mohammed, the Prophet of Islam.
572 - The
ࠠ࠼/span>- War breaks out between
ࠠ࠼/span>- The G櫴첫 Khaganate splits into Eastern and Western divisions.
573 - The Lombard King Alboin is murdered, and Cleph becomes King.
574 - The Visigoths conquer the Basque Kingdom of Cantabria.
575 - King Cleph dies and the
576 - G櫴첫 forces cross the Cimmerian Bosporus and raid the
578 - Emperor Justin II dies and is succeeded by Tiberius II.
579 - Persian Shahanshah Khusru I dies and is succeeded by his son, Khusru II.
580 - Khusru II is overthrown and flees to
581 - In
582 - Emperor Tiberius II dies and is succeeded by Maurice.
583 - The Avars capture several Roman fortresses along the
584 - The G櫴첫 Khaganate splits apart in civil war after the death of Taspar Khan.࠼/span>His successor, Talopien, is opposed by the High Council and Ishbara Khan.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Authari, a grandson of Alboin, becomes
King of the
585 - The Visigoth King, Liuvigild, conquers the
588 - The 1st Turko-Persian war begins as Turkish forces
invade Persian lands in central
589 - Persian forces defeat the Turks a second time and take
590 - King Authari dies and is replaced by Duke Agilulf of
591 - Emperor Maurice leads an army into
ࠠ࠼/span>- An Avar army raids the
600 - Western G櫴첫 Khagan Tardu attacks the Sui DynastyⳠcapital, Changan.
601 - Roman armies under General Priscus defeat the Avars at the Battle of Viminacium.
602 - Roman Emperor Maurice is overthrown and murdered after the army mutinies and proclaims a soldier named Phocas as Emperor.
603 - Western G櫴첫 Khagan Tardu is killed during a revolt of his Tiele and Uyghur vassals.
606 - War breaks out between
608 - Persian armies overrun
610 栔he tyrannical Emperor Phocus is overthrown by a general from
ࠠ࠼/span>- The Avars invade
611 - Persian forces seize
613 - Persian forces seize
ࠠ࠼/span>- King Lothair II reunites
614 栐ersian forces seize
615 - Persian forces again reach
ࠠ࠼/span>- The Lombard King Agilulf dies.
616 - The last Roman outposts in
618 - Li Yuan becomes first Emperor of the Tang Dynasty in
619 - Persian forces drive the Romans out of
ࠠ࠼/span>- Avar forces threaten
ࠠ࠼/span>- Beginning of 2nd Turko-Persian war, as Turkish forces under Tong Yabghu invade Persian Armenia.࠼/span>After initial Turkish successes, the Persian general Smbat defeated the Turks.
622 - Flight of Mohammed and his followers from
624 - Moslem forces defeat the Meccans at the Battle of Badr.
626 - A Persian/Avar force besieges
627 - Turkish forces capture the Persian fortress of Derbent in
ࠠ࠼/span>- Emperor Heraclius defeats
the main Persian force at
ࠠ࠼/span>- The Meccan siege of
628 - Roman armies under Heraclius reach the Persian capital of
ࠠ࠼/span>- King Lothair II of the Franks dies and is succeeded by his son, who becomes King Dagobert.
630 - Moslem forces seize
ࠠ ༯span>- Chinese forces capture the Eastern G櫴첫 Khagan, Kheli.࠼/span>His successor, Khagan Khubo, escapes and leads the Turks to Altai.
632 - Mohammed dies and Abu Bakr is acclaimed as the first Caliph.࠼/span>Abu Bakr then defeats several rebellious Arab tribes.
633 - Arab forces seize Hira from the Persians.
634 - Arab forces seize Bostra.͊
ࠠ - Death of Abu Bakr, who appointed Omar to succeed him as Caliph.
635 - The Arabs take
ࠠ࠼/span>- Arab forces score a significant victory over the Persians at Buwayb.
636 栁rab forces destroy the main Roman army at the Battle of Yarmuk,
taking all of
637 - Arab forces take
ࠠ࠼/span>- Another Arab force takes
638 - Arabs take the Syrian
640 - Arab forces take the
ࠠ - Another Arab army takes
the city of
641 - Emperor Heraclius dies and is succeeded by his son Heraclius Constantinus, who dies a few months later.͊Heracleonas, another son of Heraclius, becomes Emperor but is soon overthrown by the army.࠼/span>Constans II, a grandson of Heraclius, becomes Emperor.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Arab forces destroy the main Persian army at the Battle of Nehawand.
643 - The Romans are forced to evacuate
644 - The Hephthalite Khanate of Kapisa is conquered by the Sassanid Persians.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Arab Caliph Omar is assassinated and Othman is elected to replace him.
645 - Roman forces briefly retake
647 - Arab Moslem armies raid Khorasan in
ࠠ࠼/span>- Another Arab army invades
648 - The
650 - The Hephthalites re-establish their Khanate, this time in
654 - Arab forces seize and plunder the islands of
655 - An Arab fleet destroys the Roman fleet off the Lycian coast (in
656 - Arab Caliph Othman is assassinated in
657 - Chinese Tang forces led by general Su Ding Fang defeat the
659 栔he Chinese Tang defeat the Western Goturk Khaganate.
661 - Arab Caliph Ali is murdered and Mo⡷iya becomes Caliph, founding the Umayyad Dynasty.
662 - Tibetan forces destroy a Chinese army south of Kashgar in the
663 - Emperor Constans II moves his court to
668 - Emperor Constans II is murdered during a mutiny in
ࠠ࠼/span>- The Arabs found the city
673 - Arab forces begin their first siege of
674 - Arab forces seize the city of
675 - Thessalonica is attacked by Slavic tribes, the first of several repeated assaults (675 - 681).
676 - The city of
679 - The Bulgar horde of Aspurach conquers
680 - Bulgar forces defeat the Roman army under Emperor Constantine IV, strengthening the Bulgar occupation of Roman Moesia.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Arab Caliph Mo⡷iya dies and is succeeded by Yazid I as Caliph.
681 - G櫴첫 Khans revolt against Tang domination and re-establish the G櫴첫 Khaganate.
682 - Arab Caliph Yazid I dies and is succeeded first by Mo⡷iya II, then by Marwan I.
685 - Emperor Constantine IV dies and is succeeded by his son Justinian II.
ࠠ࠼/span>- Caliph Marwan I dies and is succeeded by his son, Abdulmalik.
687 - Pepin II wins the Battle of Tertry and becomes master of
689 - Emperor Justinian II defeats several Slavic tribes in
692 - Arabs score a decisive victory over the Romans at Sebastopolis
695 - Emperor Justinian II is overthrown, mutilated and exiled during a revolt led by Leontius.
697 - Arab forces seize the city of
698 - A Roman army sent to retake
ࠠ࠼/span>- After driving the Romans
705 - Justinian II returns to power with help from the Bulgars, then begins an insane revenge against his enemies, instituting a reign of terror.
708 - Arab forces begin their invasion of
ࠠ࠼/span>- Bulgar forces defeat the Romans at Anchialus.
711 - Arab forces invade the
ࠠ࠼/span>- A revolt in the
712 - Bulgar forces raid the suburbs of
ࠠ࠼/span>- Arab forces seize the
ࠠ࠼/span>- Another Arab army
conquers Ferghana in central
ࠠ࠼/span>- War breaks out between the G櫴첫 Khaganate and the Umayyad Caliphate.
713 - The Roman army in
ࠠ࠼/span>- Umayyad forces defeat the G櫴첫s and reinforce their hold over Transoxiana.
714 - Pepin II dies, leaving
715 - Anastasius II is overthrown by the army and replaced as Emperor
716 - Arab forces attack the city of
717 - Emperor Theodosius
ࠠ࠼/span>- The second siege of
718 - Death of Khan Tervel of
724 - Sevar becomes Khan of the Bulgars (724 to 739 ad).
726 - Beginning of the ㉣onoclast Controversy䬠after Emperor Leo
732 - Arab forces are defeated by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours.
734 - Death of Khagan Bilge begins the decline of the G櫴첫 Khaganate.
739 - The death of Bulgar Khan Sevar brings an end to the Dulo Dynasty.࠼/span>He is succeeded by Kormisosh of the Ukil family (739 to 756 ad).
742 - Uyghur, Karluk, and Basmil tribes rise up against the G櫴첫 Khaganate.
744 - The Basmils seize the G櫴첫 capital city, Otugen, and capture࠼/span>the G櫴첫 Khagan, Ozmish Khan.
ࠠ࠼/span>- The Uyghurs and Karluks ally against the Basmils, defeating them and beheading the Basmil Khan.࠼/span>The Basmil tribes are effectively destroyed, with survivors being distributed as slaves among the Uyghurs and Karluks, or being sold to the Chinese.
747 栕yghur Khagan ㋵tluk bilge kol䠤ies, leaving his territories to his son, Bayanchur Khan.
756 - The Uyghurs invade Kyrgyz lands, destroying several Kyrgyz trading posts and executing their Khan.
࠼/span>* Lam Ap's last king dies, and Lam Ap's kingdom fragments into the Champa Kingdoms.
759 - Uyghur Khagan Bayanchur Khan dies and is succeeded by his son, Tengri Bogu.
762 - The Uyghurs ally with the Chinese Tang Dynasty and launch a
766 - Karluk forces occupy Suyab.
779 - Uyghur Khagan Tengri Bogu is killed by his uncle, Tun Bagha Tarkhan, who becomes the next Uyghur Khagan.
795 - Death of Uyghur Khagan Tun Bagha Tarkhan brings an end to the Yaghlakar Dynasty.࠼/span>The Uyghur Khaganate begins to fragment, but collapse is averted by a general named Kutluk, who founds the Ediz Dynasty.
808 - Death of Uyghur Khagan Kutluk, who is succeeded by his son.࠼/span>The Uyghur Khaganate begins to fragment.
824 - Uyghur Khagan ㋵n tengride ulug bulmish alp kuchlug bilge䠤ies and is succeeded by his brother, Qasar.
832 - Uyghur Khagan Qasar is murdered, and the Uyghur Khaganate falls into a period of anarchy.
839 - A minister named Kurebir seizes the Uyghur throne and forces the legitimate Khagan to commit suicide.
840 - Kyrgyz forces destroy the Uyghur capital of Ordu Baliq and kill the Uyghur Khan, Kurebir.
847 - Uyghur Khagan Oge is assassinated while fighting the Kyrgyz invasion, and the Uyghur Khaganate collapses.
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