AD or Common Era Timeline

022 – The Korean Kingdom of Dongbuyeo is annexed by Goguryeo.

192 – A Malay people known as the Chams (Champa?) seize Quangnam from the Chinese Han Dynasty, founding the Cham Kingdom of Lam Ap (Lin Yi).

208 – The Battle of Red Cliffs in China .  General Liu Bei and his allies defeat general Cao Cao and force him to withdraw from Jingzhou.

220 – In China , a warlord named Cao Pi deposes Emperor Xian, ending the Han Dynasty, and declares himself Emperor of the Kingdom of Wei .

221 – Liu Bei declares himself Emperor of the Shu (or Shu Han) Dynasty in China .

223 – Emperor Liu Bei of Shu Han dies and is succeeded by his son Liu Shan.

226 – Beginning of the Sassanid Persian Empire, as Ardashir I of Persia ( Fars ) overthrows the Parthian Empire by defeating King Artabanus of the Arsacid dynasty.  Artabanus dies in battle.

229 – War breaks out between Rome and Persia , after Ardashir demands the Romans evacuate all of their Asian territories (229 to 232 ad).

240 – Sassanid Emperor Ardashir I dies and is succeeded by Shapur I (240 to 271 ad).

     – Cao Rui becomes Emperor of the Kingdom of Wei in China .

241 – War breaks out between Persia and Rome when Shapur invades Roman Syria (241 to 244 ad).  Nisibis and Antioch fall to the Persians.

244 – Roman Emperor Gordian defeats Shapur but is murdered before he can continue.  Peace is concluded by his successor, Emperor Philip “the Arab”.

253 – Valerian and his son Gallienus become Roman Emperors.

     – Persian armies under Shapur I capture Antioch .

257 – Emperor Valerian retakes Antioch from the Persians.

     – Germanic tribes invade Western Roman lands; the Franks invade Gaul and the Alamanni invade Italy .  The Alamanni are defeated at Milan .

260 – Emperor Valerian is defeated and captured by the Persians, dying as a slave of the Persian Emperor (265?). The Persian victory is short-lived; King Odaenathus of Palmyra leads a brilliant campaign and that defeats Shapur and drives the Persians out of Roman territory.

     – Posthumus is proclaimed Emperor in Gaul , Iberia , and Britain .

267 – Germanic warbands led by the Ostrogoths sack the city of Byzantium in Thrace .

     – Odaenathus is assassinated, and his widow Zenobia becomes Queen of Palmyra.

268 – Emperor Gallienus defeats the Ostrogoths, but is later assassinated.  Claudius II becomes Emperor of Rome.

269 – Roman armies under Emperor Claudius II destroy the eastern contingent of the Ostrogothic warbands at the Battle of Naissus (in modern Serbia ).

     – Posthumus is killed and Victorinus is proclaimed Emperor in Gaul and Britain .

     – Palmyrene forces take Syria and Egypt from the Romans.

270 – Emperor Claudius II dies of plague and Aurelian becomes Emperor of Rome.

    – The Han Chinese repel an invasion of Chams.

271 – Emperor Victorinus is murdered; his soldiers proclaim Tetricus I as Emperor.

272 – Emperor Aurelian defeats Zenobia at Antioch and Emesa, then takes Palmyra .

273 – Palmyra revolts against Rome , but Aurelian defeats the revolt and destroys the city.

274 – Emperor Aurelian defeats Tetricus in Gaul (at the Catalaunian Fields).

275 – Emperor Aurelian is murdered and Tacitus is declared Emperor.

276 – Emperor Tacitus dies and Probus becomes Emperor.

277 – The Romans defeat the Burgundians, Longiones, Alamanni, and Franks.

282 – Carus is declared Emperor; Probus is murdered by his own troops.

283 – Emperor Carus dies during an invasion of Persia .  His son Numerian becomes Emperor.

284 – Emperor Numerian dies and is succeeded by Diocletian. 

285 – Emperor Diocletian appoints Maximian as co-Emperor in the West.

  * Dongbuyeo frees itself from the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo .

  * Xianbei-Murong tribes defeat the Korean kingdom of Buyeo , forcing it to relocate its capital to Okjeo.

286 – Carausius revolts in Britain and proclaims himself Emperor.

293 – Diocletian appoints Constantius and Galerius as Caesars.

     – The rebel Carausius is murdered by Allectus, who proclaims himself Emperor.

296 – Alectus is defeated and slain.

299 – Emperor Galerius defeats the Sarmatians and Carpi .

303 – Emperor Diocletian orders the persecution of Christians.

305 – Emperors Diocletian and Maximian abdicate; Constantius I and Galerius become Emperors.

306 – Constantius I dies at York ; his son is proclaimed Emperor Constantine I by the troops.

312 – Emperor Constantine I defeats Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge.

313 – Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan, proclaiming all religions to be legal.

324 – Emperor Constantine defeats Licinius, who then abdicates, which makes Constantine the sole Emperor of Rome.

325 – The Ecumenical Council of Nicaea .

330 – The capital of the Roman Empire is moved to the ancient city of Byzantium , which is renamed “New Rome” (later Constantinople or “City of Constantine ”).

337 – Emperor Constantine I dies and his sons become Emperors (Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans).

338 – Emperor Constantius II defeats the Alamanni.

     – War breaks out between Persia and Rome .

340 – Constantine II invades Italy but is ambushed and slain by Constans near Aquileia .

341 – Emperors Constans and Constantius II issue a ban against pagan sacrifice.

347 – The heretical Donatists revolt in Africa .

348 – Emperor Constantius II defeats the Persians at the Battle of Singara.

350 – Magnentius proclaims himself Emperor of the West and Constans is captured and killed.

353 – Emperor Constantius defeats Magnentius at the Battle of Mons Seleucia; Magnentius then commits suicide.

355 – Julian is appointed Caesar in Gaul by Emperor Constantius.

357 – Julian defeats the Franks at Strasbourg .

360 – Julian’s troops mutiny against Emperor Constantius and proclaimed Julian Emperor.

361 – Emperor Constantius II dies and names Julian as his successor.

363 – Emperor Julian defeats the Persians and invades their Empire, but is killed before he reaches their capital.  His general is proclaimed by the troops as Emperor Jovian.

     – Emperor Jovian negotiates a peace treaty with Persia but dies soon afterward.  The troops proclaim another general as Emperor Valentinian I.

     – In Arabia , the rock city of Petra is destroyed by an earthquake.

364 – Emperor Valentinian appoints his brother Valens as Emperor of the East.

376 – Visigoth refugees fleeing from the Huns are allowed to settle in Roman Moesia.

378 – Emperor Valens is defeated and killed by Visigoth refugees in the Battle of Adrianople.

393 – Emperor Theodosius II forbids the Olympic games, considering them to be pagan.

395 – Emperor Theodosius II dies, dividing the Empire between his sons Honorius and Arcadius (in the West and East, respectively).

406 – A massive horde of Germanic tribes cross the Rhine border of the Roman Empire , overrunning much of Roman Gaul.

408 – Emperor Honorius has general Stilcho assassinated, and orders the massacre of the families of 30’000 Germanic Federates (soldiers).

409 – The Burgundians occupy Roman Transalpine Gaul and establish a Kingdom there.

     – Vandals, Suevians, and Alans establish kingdoms in Roman Iberia.

410 – Rome is sacked by the Visigoths, under King Alaric I.

     – Roman forces evacuate Britain , leaving its Romanized inhabitants (Britons) to fend for themselves against increasing Germanic raids on the island.

418 – The Visigoths establish a kingdom in Aquitaine , which is given to them by Emperor Honorius in exchange for helping the Romans regain control of Iberia .

     – The Iberian Alans are defeated by the Visigoths and the Alan King, Attaces, is killed.  The remaining Iberian Alans join the Asding Vandals.

425 – Vortimer usurps Roman authority in Briton becomes the leader (possible High-King) of the Britons.

     – Emperor Honorius dies and is succeeded by Emperor Valentinian III .

427 – Persian forces win a significant victory over invading Hephthalite forces and drive them from Iran .

429 – The Vandals and Alans flee Iberia and invade North Africa , at first as allies of the Roman Governor of Africa (Boniface).

431 – The Vandals capture the city of Hippo in North Africa .

437 – The Burgundian Kingdom is destroyed by a Roman and Hun alliance.

     – Ambrosius Aurelianus arrives in Briton and becomes the leader of the pro-Roman faction.  At the Battle of Wallop, Aurelianus defeats Vortigern’s subordinate, Vitalinus, and is given control over “all the Kingdoms of the Western side of Briton”.

439 – The Vandals capture Carthage from the Romans and make it the capital of their African Kingdom .

450 – Emperor Theodosius II dies and is succeeded by Marcian as Western Emperor.

451 – Battle of Chalons; Rome and its allied federates defeat Attila’s Huns and Germanic vassals.

     – A Saxon warlord named Hengst arrives with 3 keels (ships) of Saxon warriors and establishes the first permanent Germanic settlement of Briton in Kent .

     – Thorismund becomes King of the Visigoths.

453 – Attila the Hun dies and his empire is divided by his sons.

     – Theodoric II becomes King of the Visigoths.

454 – Hephthalite forces defeat the Persians.

455 – Rome is sacked by the Vandals.

     – A Hephthalite (Huna) invasion of India is defeated by the Gupta Empire.

456 – The Visigoths defeat the Suevi at the Battle of Orbigo and sack the Suevi capital of Braga .

457 – Majorian becomes Emperor of the West.

     – Persian Shah Firuz is overthrown and flees to the Hephthalites.

459 – In Briton, Vortigern is defeated and killed by Ambrosius Aurelianus at the Battle of Ganarew.

     – Persian Shah Firuz regains his throne with help from the Hephthalites.

461 – Emperor Majorian is deposed by Ricimer, who then appoints Libius Severus as Emperor.

     – The Sabir tribe is defeated by the Caucasian Avars. They in turn attack the Saragur and Utrigur Hun tribes living around the Sea of Azov .

467 – Anthemius becomes Western Emperor with the support of the Eastern Emperor, Leo I.

468 – A massive Roman attempt to regain North Africa is destroyed by the Vandals.

469 – Hunnic power is destroyed by a coalition of Germanic tribes, led by the Gepids.

472 – Emperor Anthemius is killed by Ricimer, who then makes Olybrius the Western Emperor.  Both Anthemius and Ricimer soon die of natural causes.

     – The Burgundian King Gundobad becomes magister militum in Italy .

473 – Gundobad proclaims Glycerius as the new Western Emperor.

474 – Emperor Glycerius is deposed by Julius Nepos after Gundobad leaves Italy to deal with succession struggles in Burgundy .

475 – Emperor Julius Nepos is defeated by his former magister militum, Orestes, who installs his son Romulus Augustulus as Emperor.   Julius Nepos flees to Dalmatia and establishes his capital at Split .

    – The Visigoths declare their full independence from the Western Roman Empire

476 – Orestes is defeated and executed by Odoacar, leader of the Germanic federates, and Emperor Romulus Augustulus is deposed. Odoacar refuses to acknowledge the authority of Emperor Julius Nepos, and instead accepts the title of Patrician from the Eastern Emperor. Most scholars considered this to be the end of the Western Empire .

477 – King Geiseric of the Vandals dies and is succeeded by his son Huneric.

     – Odoacar defeats the Vandals and conquers Sicily .

480 – Julius Nepos is assassinated by agents of Odoacar, and Dalmatia is annexed to his kingdom.  I consider this event to be the end of the Western Roman Empire .

481 – Clovis I becomes King of the Ripuarian Franks.

     – The Korean kingdoms of Baekje, Silla, and Daegaya form an alliance against the Kingdom of Goguryeo .

484 – Vandal King Huneric dies and is succeeded by his cousin Gunthamund.

486 – King Clovis of the Franks defeats Duke Syagrius near Soissons and conquers the last Roman outposts in Gaul .  Syagrius flees to the Visigoth court in Aquitaine but is betrayed by them and executed by Clovis .

     – Persian Shah Kubad is overthrown and takes refuge with the Hephthalites.

487 – Odoacar defeats the Rugians in Noricum and destroys their Kingdom but fails to occupy their lands.

488 – Odoacar suffers his first defeat at the hands of Theodoric and the Ostrogoths.

     – Persian Emperor Balash dies and is succeeded by Emperor Kavadh I.

491 – King Clovis defeats the Thuringians and subjugates their Kingdom.

     – Roman Emperor Zeno I dies and is succeeded by Anastasius I.

     – Saxon King Aelle conquers the fortified town of Anderitum in South Britain .

492 – Pope Felix III dies and is succeeded by Gelasius I, who becomes the 49th Pope.

493 – Theodoric and Odoacar sign a peace treaty, after which Theodoric murders Odoacar and becomes master of Italy .

494 – Emperor Xiaowen moves the Northern Wei capital from Datong to Luoyang .

  * The Korean kingdom of Buyeo is conquered by its rival Goguryeo.

495 – In Britain , King Cerdic of Wessex raids Hampshire.

496 – King Clovis defeats the Alamanni near Bonn and subjugates their Kingdom.

     – The Britons, led by Arthur, defeat the Saxons at the Battle of Mount Badon.

     – Vandal King Gunthamund dies and is succeeded by Thrasamund.

499 – Persian Emperor Kavadh I restores his throne after deposing his brother, Djamasp.

507 – King Clovis defeats and kills the Visigoth King Alaric II in the Battle of Vouille, then drives Visigoths from Aquitaine .

511 – King Clovis dies and divides the Frankish Empire among his 4 sons, resulting in the Kingdoms of Reims, Orleans , Paris , and Soissons .

512 – A Herul Kingdom is established at Singidunum ( Belgrade ) with help from the Romans.

     – The island nation of Usan-guk is conquered forces of the Silla Dynasty of Korea , led by general Lee Sabu.

515 – The Sabirs raid Roman and Persian lands in the Caucasus Mts.

516 – Burgundian King Gundobad dies and is succeeded by his son Sigismund.

523 – Vandal King Thrasamund dies and is succeeded by his son Hilderic.

     – Frankish King Chlodomer of Orleans is killed in the Battle of Vezeronce.

     – In Korea , Seong becomes King of Baekje.

524 – Frankish King Childebert I of Paris annexes the remains of his brother’s territory, including the cities of Chartres and Orleans .

525 – Ethiopian forces from Axum conquer Yemen .

526 – Ostrogoth King Theodoric the Great dies and is succeeded by his grandson Athalaric.

     – In Syria the city of Antioch is destroyed by an earthquake.

527 – Emperor Justin I dies and is succeeded by his nephew, Emperor Justinian II.

     – The Kingdom of Essex is founded by the Saxons in Britain .

528 – A coalition of Hindu Kingdoms is able to defeat the Hephthalites in India .

530 – Vandal King Hilderic is overthrown and later murdered by his cousin, Gelimer.

     – The Saxons of Wessex, led by King Cerdic, conquer the Isle of Wright from the Britons.

531 – The Franks under King Childebert of Paris attack the Visigoths under King Amalaric II.  Amalaric is defeated and flees to Barcelona , where he is assassinated by his own troops.

532 – King Childebert I of the Franks attacks the Kingdom of Burgundy and lays siege to the city of Autun .

533 – Roman armies under general Belisarius defeat the Vandals and retake much of North Africa .

534 – The Vandal King Gelimer is defeated and captured by the Romans, ending the Vandal Kingdom in Africa .

    – The Burgundian Kingdom is subjugated and divided by the Franks.  The cities of Macon , Geneva , and Lyon are taken by King Childebert of Paris .

535 – Severe climate changes are reported, possibly due to a volcanic eruption.  The weather becomes extraordinarily cold, and it is reported that the Sun became dimmer.  These conditions lead to a severe plague that decimates the world’s population.

     – Roman armies under Belisarius invade the Ostrogoth Kingdom in order to reconquer lost Roman lands in Italy .

     – The Ostrogoths cede Provence to the Franks.  King Childebert of Paris receives the cities of Arles and Marseilles .

536 – Roman armies recapture Naples and Rome .

537 – Frankish Kings Childebert of Paris and Clotaire of Soissons work together to complete the annexation of Provence .

540 – Belisarius captures the Ostrogoth capital of Ravenna , while another army seizes the city of Milan .

     – Persian forces under Emperor Khusru I invade Roman Syria and sack Antioch .

     – In Britain , High King Custennin ap Cado is deposed and returns to Dumnonia.

     – Death of Ostrogoth King Witiges.  He is succeeded by Ildibad.

     – Mythical death of King Arthur and his son Mordred in Britain .

541 – The Ostrogoths elect a new King, Totila, who then leads a strong counter-attack against Roman forces in Italy .

     – The Uyghurs come under the control of the Hephthalites.

     – Egypt is struck by the plague.

542 – Ostrogoth forces under King Totila reconquer Naples and Benevento .

     – Frankish King Childebert I of Paris captures Pamplona , then besieges Zaragoza unsuccessfully.

     – Constantinople is struck by an outbreak of the plague, which is reported to have killed at least 100’000 people in the city and 2’000’000 people throughout the Roman Empire .

544 – Roman general Belisarius is sent back to Italy to stop the Ostrogoth resurgency.

     – Persian forces unsuccessfully attack the Roman fortress of Daraa.

545 – Ostrogoth forces besiege the city of Rome .

546 – Ostrogoth forces capture the city of Rome .

     – The Romans and Lombards form an alliance against the Gepid Kingdom .

     – Lombard King Waltari dies and is succeeded by Audoin.

     – The Göktürk Khaganate begins its rise under Bumin Khan by defeating the Uygur and Tiele tribes, who were preparing to revolt against the Juan-Juan Khaganate.

547 – In Britain , the Kingdom of Bernicia is founded by Ida.

     – King Theodebert I of Austrasia dies and is succeeded by King Theodebald.

548 – Belisarius is replaced by Narses as head of the Roman army in Italy .

     – In Korea , Goguryeo allies with the Gaya Confederacy and invades Baekje.

     – Death of King Theudis; he is succeeded by King Theudigisel.

     – Death of Roman Empress Theodora.

549 – Ostrogoth forces under King Totila recapture Rome .

     – Death of Visigoth King Theudigisel.  He is succeeded by King Agila.

     – Death of Emperor Wu of the Liang Dynasty in China .  He is succeeded by Emperor Jinwen.

550 – The Eastern Wei Dynasty of China ends and is replaced by the Northern Qi Dynasty.

552 – Göktürk Khagan Bumin defeats the last Juan-Juan Khagan (Yujiulu Anagui). 

     – Ostrogoth King Totila is defeated and killed by Roman forces in Italy , thus ending the Ostrogoth Kingdom .

     – The Sabirs ally with the Romans and attack Persian lands in the Caucasus Mts.

554 – Roman armies invade Iberia and conquer most of Andalusia from the Visigoths.

557 – The Hephthalite Khaganate in Central Asia is destroyed an alliance of Persians and Göktürks.

558 – The Frankish Kingdom is briefly reunited (558 to 561) after King Childebert I of Paris dies without an heir and his Kingdom is absorbed into the Kingdom of Clothar I of Soissons .

Frankish King Childebert I of Paris dies without an heir.

561 – The last Ostrogoth warlord, Wodin, is defeated by Roman forces.

     – King Lothair of the Franks dies and divides his Kingdom between his four sons.

562 – An Avar invasion of Thuringia is repulsed by the Franks.

     – The Kingdom of Silla captures Imna and drives the Japanese from Korea .

565 – A Hephthalite Khanate is re-established in Afghanistan (first at Kapisa).

     – Roman Emperor Justinian I dies in Constantinople .  He is succeeded by his nephew, Emperor Justin II.

567 – The Gepid Kingdom in Dacia is destroyed by an alliance of Avars and Lombards.

568 – The Lombards invade Roman Italy.

     – The Avar order their Kutrigur vassals to raid Roman Dalmatia, which effectively cuts the overland route from Italy to the rest of the Roman Empire .

569 – The Lombards capture the Roman cities of Verona and Milan .

570 – Birth of Mohammed, the Prophet of Islam.

572 – The Lombards capture the Roman city of Pavia and make it the capital of the Lombard Kingdom in Italy .

     – War breaks out between Persia and Rome (572-591 ad) over conflicting interests in Armenia .

     – The Göktürk Khaganate splits into Eastern and Western divisions.

573 – The Lombard King Alboin is murdered, and Cleph becomes King.

574 – The Visigoths conquer the Basque Kingdom of Cantabria.

575 – King Cleph dies and the Lombard Kingdom falls into anarchy.

576 – Göktürk forces cross the Cimmerian Bosporus and raid the Crimea .

578 – Emperor Justin II dies and is succeeded by Tiberius II.

579 – Persian Shahanshah Khusru I dies and is succeeded by his son, Khusru II.

580 – Khusru II is overthrown and flees to Constantinople .

581 – In China , the Sui Dynasty is founded by the Chief Minister of the Chou Dynasty, Wen Ti.

582 – Emperor Tiberius II dies and is succeeded by Maurice.

583 – The Avars capture several Roman fortresses along the Danube .

584 – The Göktürk Khaganate splits apart in civil war after the death of Taspar Khan.  His successor, Talopien, is opposed by the High Council and Ishbara Khan.

     – Authari, a grandson of Alboin, becomes King of the Lombards .

585 – The Visigoth King, Liuvigild, conquers the Suevian Kingdom in NW Iberia.

588 – The 1st Turko-Persian war begins as Turkish forces invade Persian lands in central Asia .  Persian forces defeat the Turks at Balkh .

589 – Persian forces defeat the Turks a second time and take Herat , ending the war.

590 – King Authari dies and is replaced by Duke Agilulf of Turin as King of the Lombards .

591 – Emperor Maurice leads an army into Persia and re-installs Khusru II on the Persian throne.  In return, Khusru gives Dara and most of Armenia to the Romans.

     – An Avar army raids the suburbs of Constantinople .

600 – Western Göktürk Khagan Tardu attacks the Sui Dynasty’s capital, Changan.

601 – Roman armies under General Priscus defeat the Avars at the Battle of Viminacium.

602 – Roman Emperor Maurice is overthrown and murdered after the army mutinies and proclaims a soldier named Phocas as Emperor.

603 – Western Göktürk Khagan Tardu is killed during a revolt of his Tiele and Uyghur vassals.

606 – War breaks out between Persia and Rome after Persian armies attack the Roman fortress at Dara.

608 – Persian armies overrun Syria and Mesopotamia , while another Persian force invades Anatolia and reaches Chalcedon .

610 – The tyrannical Emperor Phocus is overthrown by a general from Africa , who becomes Emperor Heraclius.

     – The Avars invade Northern Italy but fail to occupy any lands.

611 – Persian forces seize Antioch , Emesa, and Caesarea .

613 – Persian forces seize Damascus .

     – King Lothair II reunites the Frankish Kingdom .

614 – Persian forces seize Jerusalem and carry of the True Cross.

615 – Persian forces again reach Chalcedon .

     – The Lombard King Agilulf dies.

616 – The last Roman outposts in Iberia are captured by the Visigoths.

618 – Li Yuan becomes first Emperor of the Tang Dynasty in China .

619 – Persian forces drive the Romans out of Egypt .

     – Avar forces threaten Constantinople .  Emperor Heraclius decides to relocate to Carthage , but is persuaded to stay by Patriarch Sergius.

     – Beginning of 2nd Turko-Persian war, as Turkish forces under Tong Yabghu invade Persian Armenia.  After initial Turkish successes, the Persian general Smbat defeated the Turks.

622 – Flight of Mohammed and his followers from Mecca to Medina , which becomes known in Islamic folklore as the Hegira.

624 – Moslem forces defeat the Meccans at the Battle of Badr.

626 – A Persian/Avar force besieges Constantinople but the Persians are unable to cross over from Asia , while the Avars are unable to storm the walls.  This marks the height of Avar and Persian power.

627 – Turkish forces capture the Persian fortress of Derbent in Azerbaijan , beginning the 3rd Turko-Persian war.

     – Emperor Heraclius defeats the main Persian force at Nineveh , then marches toward Ctesiphon .  Persian nobles rise against Khusru II, who is murdered.  The conspirators then negotiate a peace with the Romans, ending the “Great War” between Rome and Persia .

     – The Meccan siege of Medina fails.

628 – Roman armies under Heraclius reach the Persian capital of Ctesiphon , after which Shahanshah Khusru II is overthrown and murdered.  The Persians then sue for peace, giving all of their recent conquests back to the Romans.

     – King Lothair II of the Franks dies and is succeeded by his son, who becomes King Dagobert.

630 – Moslem forces seize Mecca .

     – Chinese forces capture the Eastern Göktürk Khagan, Kheli.  His successor, Khagan Khubo, escapes and leads the Turks to Altai.

632 – Mohammed dies and Abu Bakr is acclaimed as the first Caliph.  Abu Bakr then defeats several rebellious Arab tribes.

633 – Arab forces seize Hira from the Persians.

634 – Arab forces seize Bostra. 

    – Death of Abu Bakr, who appointed Omar to succeed him as Caliph.

635 – The Arabs take Damascus from the Romans, only to abandon them at the approach of a superior Roman army.

     – Arab forces score a significant victory over the Persians at Buwayb.

636 – Arab forces destroy the main Roman army at the Battle of Yarmuk, taking all of Syria from the Romans.

637 – Arab forces take Jerusalem from the Romans.

     – Another Arab force takes Ctesiphon from the Persians.

638 – Arabs take the Syrian port of Latakia ( Laodicea ) from the Romans.

640 – Arab forces take the port of Caesarea in Palestine .

    – Another Arab army takes the city of Pelusium in Egypt .

641 – Emperor Heraclius dies and is succeeded by his son Heraclius Constantinus, who dies a few months later.  Heracleonas, another son of Heraclius, becomes Emperor but is soon overthrown by the army.  Constans II, a grandson of Heraclius, becomes Emperor.

     – Arab forces destroy the main Persian army at the Battle of Nehawand.

642 – Egypt surrenders to the Arabs after the Arabs seize the Roman fortress of Babylon .

643 – The Romans are forced to evacuate Alexandria by Arab forces.

644 – The Hephthalite Khanate of Kapisa is conquered by the Sassanid Persians.

     – Arab Caliph Omar is assassinated and Othman is elected to replace him.

645 – Roman forces briefly retake Alexandria before being defeated by the Arabs.

647 – Arab Moslem armies raid Khorasan in Central Asia .

     – Another Arab army invades North Africa from its base in Egypt .

648 – The island of Cyprus falls to the Arabs.

650 – The Hephthalites re-establish their Khanate, this time in Kabul .

653 – Armenia is conquered by the Arabs.

654 – Arab forces seize and plunder the islands of Rhodes , and scrap the remains of the Ancient Colossus of Rhodes (one of the few remaining Wonders of the Ancient World).

655 – An Arab fleet destroys the Roman fleet off the Lycian coast (in Asia Minor ), almost taking the Emperor Constans II captive.

656 – Arab Caliph Othman is assassinated in Medina .  Mohammed’s son-in-law Ali becomes Caliph.

657 – Chinese Tang forces led by general Su Ding Fang defeat the Western Göktürks and overrun much of their Khaganate.

659 – The Chinese Tang defeat the Western Goturk Khaganate.

661 – Arab Caliph Ali is murdered and Mo’awiya becomes Caliph, founding the Umayyad Dynasty.

662 – Tibetan forces destroy a Chinese army south of Kashgar in the Tarim Basin .

663 – Emperor Constans II moves his court to Italy while preparing to destroy the Lombard Kingdom .  Rumors soon spread that he is preparing to move the capital to Syracuse .

668 – Emperor Constans II is murdered during a mutiny in Syracuse .  His son Constantine IV travels to Sicily and quells the revolt.  On his return to Constantinople , the troops force him to accept his brothers, Heraclius and Tiberius, as co-Emperors.

670 – Kabul is captured by the Arab Moslems, thus destroying the last Hephthalite Khanate.

     – The Arabs found the city of Qairawan to consolidate their positions in North Africa .

673 – Arab forces begin their first siege of Constantinople , which fails over 5 years (673 to 678).

674 – Arab forces seize the city of Bokhara in central Asia .

675 – Thessalonica is attacked by Slavic tribes, the first of several repeated assaults (675 – 681).

676 – The city of Samarkand in central Asia falls to the Arabs.

679 – The Bulgar horde of Aspurach conquers Bessarabia and begins asserting its influence over the Slav tribes occupying Roman Moesia.

680 – Bulgar forces defeat the Roman army under Emperor Constantine IV, strengthening the Bulgar occupation of Roman Moesia.

     – Arab Caliph Mo’awiya dies and is succeeded by Yazid I as Caliph.

681 – Göktürk Khans revolt against Tang domination and re-establish the Göktürk Khaganate.

682 – Arab Caliph Yazid I dies and is succeeded first by Mo’awiya II, then by Marwan I.

685 – Emperor Constantine IV dies and is succeeded by his son Justinian II.

     – Caliph Marwan I dies and is succeeded by his son, Abdulmalik.

687 – Pepin II wins the Battle of Tertry and becomes master of Austrasia and Neustria .

689 – Emperor Justinian II defeats several Slavic tribes in Thrace , then forces them to transfer to Roman lands in Asia Minor .

692 – Arabs score a decisive victory over the Romans at Sebastopolis (in eastern Anatolia ).

695 – Emperor Justinian II is overthrown, mutilated and exiled during a revolt led by Leontius.

697 – Arab forces seize the city of Carthage , breaking the imperial hold over North Africa .

698 – A Roman army sent to retake Carthage fails, and then mutinies against the Emperor.  Leontius is overthrown and replaced by Tiberius III .

     – After driving the Romans from Carthage , the Arabs destroy the city.

705 – Justinian II returns to power with help from the Bulgars, then begins an insane revenge against his enemies, instituting a reign of terror.

708 – Arab forces begin their invasion of Sind , which takes 7 years to complete (708 – 715 ad).

     – Bulgar forces defeat the Romans at Anchialus.

711 – Arab forces invade the Visigoth Kingdom in Iberia .  King Roderick is killed and the capital city at Toledo falls to the Arabs.

     – A revolt in the Crimea , with support from the Khazars, overthrows and kills Justinian II, and installs Philippicus as Emperor.

712 – Bulgar forces raid the suburbs of Constantinople .

     – Arab forces seize the city of Amasia from the Romans in Cilicia .

     – Another Arab army conquers Ferghana in central Asia .

     – Seville and the rest of southern Iberia fall to the Arabs.

     – War breaks out between the Göktürk Khaganate and the Umayyad Caliphate.

713 – The Roman army in Thrace overthrows Philippicus and installs Anastasius II as Emperor.

     – Merida and Saragossa fall to the Arabs in Iberia .

     – Umayyad forces defeat the Göktürks and reinforce their hold over Transoxiana.

714 – Pepin II dies, leaving Austrasia and Neustria to his son Charles Martel (“the Hammer”).

715 – Anastasius II is overthrown by the army and replaced as Emperor by Theodosius III .

716 – Arab forces attack the city of Pergamon in western Anatolia , but are repulsed by the Strategos of the Anatolian Theme, Leo.

717 – Emperor Theodosius III is forced to abdicate by the Strategos of Anatolia, who becomes Emperor Leo III .

     – The second siege of Constantinople by the Arabs.  This siege lasts for one year, before the Arab army is destroyed by the Romans and Bulgarians.

718 – Death of Khan Tervel of Bulgaria .  His immediate successor is unknown.

724 – Sevar becomes Khan of the Bulgars (724 to 739 ad).

726 – Beginning of the “Iconoclast Controversy”, after Emperor Leo III orders the destruction of several popular icons.

732 – Arab forces are defeated by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours.

734 – Death of Khagan Bilge begins the decline of the Göktürk Khaganate.

739 – The death of Bulgar Khan Sevar brings an end to the Dulo Dynasty.  He is succeeded by Kormisosh of the Ukil family (739 to 756 ad).

742 – Uyghur, Karluk, and Basmil tribes rise up against the Göktürk Khaganate.

743 – The Basmils seize the Göktürk capital city, Otugen, and capture  the Göktürk Khagan, Ozmish Khan.

744 – The Uyghurs and Karluks ally against the Basmils, defeating them and beheading the Basmil Khan.  The Basmil tribes are effectively destroyed, with survivors being distributed as slaves among the Uyghurs and Karluks, or being sold to the Chinese.

747 – Uyghur Khagan “Kutluk bilge kol” dies, leaving his territories to his son, Bayanchur Khan.

751 – Battle of Talas.  Arab forces destroy an army from the Chinese Tang Dynasty, thus gaining control over central Asia .

756 – The Uyghurs invade Kyrgyz lands, destroying several Kyrgyz trading posts and executing their Khan.

  * Lam Ap’s last king dies, and Lam Ap’s kingdom fragments into the Champa Kingdoms.

759 – Uyghur Khagan Bayanchur Khan dies and is succeeded by his son, Tengri Bogu.

762 – The Uyghurs ally with the Chinese Tang Dynasty and launch a campaign against Tibet .  Uyghur forces recapture the Tang capital of Luoyang for the Emperor.

766 – Karluk forces occupy Suyab.

779 – Uyghur Khagan Tengri Bogu is killed by his uncle, Tun Bagha Tarkhan, who becomes the next Uyghur Khagan.

795 – Death of Uyghur Khagan Tun Bagha Tarkhan brings an end to the Yaghlakar Dynasty.  The Uyghur Khaganate begins to fragment, but collapse is averted by a general named Kutluk, who founds the Ediz Dynasty.

808 – Death of Uyghur Khagan Kutluk, who is succeeded by his son.  The Uyghur Khaganate begins to fragment.

824 – Uyghur Khagan “Kun tengride ulug bulmish alp kuchlug bilge” dies and is succeeded by his brother, Qasar.

832 – Uyghur Khagan Qasar is murdered, and the Uyghur Khaganate falls into a period of anarchy.

839 – A minister named Kurebir seizes the Uyghur throne and forces the legitimate Khagan to commit suicide.

840 – Kyrgyz forces destroy the Uyghur capital of Ordu Baliq and kill the Uyghur Khan, Kurebir.

847 – Uyghur Khagan Oge is assassinated while fighting the Kyrgyz invasion, and the Uyghur Khaganate collapses.

870 – Central Asia: The Kushano-Hephthalite Kingdom (aka the Buddhist Turk-Shahi Dynasty) is overthrown by a minister named Kallar, who founds the Brahmin Hindu-Shahi Dynasty.

964 – Central Asia : Death of Hindu-Shahi King Bhimdev ends the Brahmin Dynasty of Hindu-Shahis. Bhimdev is succeeded by Jayapaladeva, who founds the Janjua Dynasty of Hindu-Shahis.

1026 – Central Asia : Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni defeats Bhimpala Shah, ending the Shahi Kingdom .

1030 – Central Asia : Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni dies and is succeeded.