540 BC—Cyrus attacks Babylonia.
540 BC—Greek city of Elea of southern Italy founded (approximate date).
540 BC—Persians conquer Lycian city of Xanthos now in southern Turkey (approximate date).
c. 540 BC—Amasis Painter makes Dionysos with maenads, black-figure decoration on an amphora. It is now at Bibliotheque Nationale de France, Paris.
c. 540 BC—Exekias makes The Suicide of Ajax, black-figure decoration on an amphora. It is now at Chateau-Musee, Boulogne-sur-Mer, France.